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Morphology and Histology of amarvalli - Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

amarvalli :

Dusparsa - Cuscuta reflexa Roxb


Morphology:

Stem: - It is very long, rather stout, closely twining, branched, glabrous, pale greenish yellow, sometimes dotted with red. 

Flower: - Solitary or in umbellate clusters of 2-4 or in short racemes, pedicels short, glabrous, usually curved (rarely 0), bracts 1.5 mm. long ovate, oblong, obtuse, fleshy. Calyx divided almost to the base. Lobes are 3mm long, slightly unequal, broadly ovate, obtuse, glabrous and fleshy. Corolla white, tube 6-8 by 4mm, almost cylindrical, lobes 2.5-3mm. long, deltoid, acute, reflexed, scale almost at the base of the corolla, tube large, oblong, subquadrate or somewhat ovate, fimbriate and in curved at the apex. Stamens in the throat of the corolla tube, filaments scarcely any, anther about ½ exserted beyond the top of corolla tube. Ovary is ovoid; style simple, very short and thick; stigma 2, distinct, large, thick and fleshy, 1.5 mm long, ovoid. Capsules 6-8 mm in diameter, depressed-globose, glabrous, circumscissile near the base. 

Seed: - Seeds 2-4, large, black and glabrous


Histology:

The TS of stem  
The stem is an ascending axis of the plant developed from the plumule. It consists of nodes, internodes, and buds and it gives rise to branches, leaves and flowers. The stem may be aerial, subaerial, and underground. Depending upon the presence of mechanical tissues, the stem may be weak, herbaceous or woody. The primary stem shows the following structure: epidermis, cortex, medullary rays, medulla and a vascular system taking the form of a dicotyostele. The TS exhibited the cortex contained Cortex 5–6 layers with articulated laticifers. Including Hypodermis and General cortex. Hypodermis Just below the epidermis. There are 2–3 layers of collenchymatous cells larger in size than epidermis. The epidermis composed of a single layer of compactly arranged cells and bear stomata. General cortex 2–3 layers of radially elongated thin walled parenchymatous cells. There are conspicuous intracellular spaces in it, These are bicollateral, conjoint, open and arranged in a ring. Each bundle consists of xylem, phloem, and cambium. Xylem Xylem of vessels with simple end-walls, partially developed. The smaller vessels constituting the protoxylem and the bigger ones constituting the metaxylem lies away from the centre. The protoxylem consists of annular, spiral and scalariform vessels, and the metaxylem of reticulate and pitted vessels.
Phloem Without intraxylary phloem. Cambium It consists of 2–3 layers of thin walled and rectangular, and is arranged in radial rows. Medullary rays Few layers of fairly big polygonal or readily elongated parenchymatous cell packed with yellow-brown masses (pigments).
Pith Large, thin walled, lignified big polygonal, rounded parenchymatous cells with intracellular space.

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