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badara - Zizyphus sativus

badara :

Tree growing in savannah in Indonesia Photograph by: Wie146 Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zízyphon, commonly called jujube (/ˈdʒuːdʒuːb/; sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).


This is the famous fruit which Shabari, an old lady served Lord Sri Ram in Ramayana. The old Lady was so full of devotion, while serving Sri Ram that she tasted every Jujube fruit before serving it to Lord Ram. The Lord, being compassionate towards his devotee accepted those fruits with much love.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Ziziphus jujuba

Allied species:

Charaka –
Hrudya – Group of herb that acts as cardiac tonic, congenial for heart,
Svedopaga – Group Virechanopaga,
Chadri Nigrahana – Anti emetic group of herb
Phala Asava Yoni – Ber fruit is a source of fermented medicinal beverage (Reference: Charaka Sutrasthana 25)
Sushruta and Vagbhata –Nyagrodhadi gana
Sodala Nighantu, Raja Nighantu, Dhanvantari Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha – Amradi Varga
Kaiyadeva Nighantu – Oshadhi Varga


Sanskrit: बदर Badara, बद्री Badri, बद्री फल Badri phala, सौवीर Sauvir.
English: Indian plum, jujube, bherefruit tree
Hindi: बदर badar, बेर ber, कुबल kubal, फेनिल phenil, पिच्छल picchal
Urdu: Ber
Telugu: Regu chettu
Bengali: Kul Vadar, Vadar, Vadai, Narkolikul
Marathi: बोर Bor, सौबरी Saubari
Oriya: Borakoli
Gujarathi: Bor
Tamil: Ilandai
Malayalam: Lanta, Lantakkura
Kannada: Bore hannu, Bore mara
Punjabi: amlai, barari, simli, singli
Arabic: : Beri, Bor, Nabbak el fil., nabq, dum, tsal, sadr, zufzuuf
Spanish: Azufaifo indio.
Assamese: Vagari
Japanese: Indo natsume.
Chinese: Dian ci zao, Suan zao
French: Jujubier de lInde
German: Filzblättrige Jujube.
Burma: Zee pen, Zizidaw.
Nepal: Bayar
Persian: Zizafun, Zizfum, anab or annab
Sinhalese: Masan / Dabara
Greek: Zizifia, Zizyfon.


Bhava Prakasha has mentioned about three varieties-
Sauveera – Bigger variety, also called Raja Badara – Ziziphus sativa
Kola – mid size fruits – Ziziphus jujuba, Ziziphus mauritiana
Karkandhu – small fruits

Varieties of jujube include Li, Lang, Sherwood, Silverhill, So, Shui Men and GA 866.


The species has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling. It was first described scientifically by Carl Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum in 1753. Later, in 1768, Philip Miller concluded it was sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to merit separation into a new genus, which he named Ziziphus jujube, using Linnaeus species name for the genus but with a probably accidental single letter spelling difference,


Synonyms in Ayurveda: karkandhu, badari, kol, phenil, kuvala, sauvir, ajapriya, koli, visham, abhaykantak, rajabadara

Ajapriya, Karkandhu, Kola, Badari, Sauveera, Gudaphala,
Baleshta – liked by children

- Ziziphus : From the ancient Greek name zizufon for Zizyphus jujuba, from the Arabic zizouf or zizafun.
- Jujuba : From the Arabic name jujube.

Rasa: Amla Kashaya Madhura
Guna: Guru Snigdha
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Maduram
Karma: Pittahara Vatahara

Ber fruit or Indian Jujube or Chinese apple is a Vitamin C rich fruit, used in Ayurveda for treating bleeding disorders, excessive thirst, fever, burning sensation etc. Its seeds possess anti cancer potential. 


The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15 °C (5 °F) and the tree is for instance commonly cultivated in Beijing. This enables the jujube to grow in mountain or desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water throughout the summer. The jujube, Z. jujuba grows in cooler regions of Asia. Five or more other species of Ziziphus are widely distributed in milder climates to hot deserts of Asia and Africa.


Sex distribution :
Ziziphus jujuba is bisexual (each flower of each individual has both male and female structures)

Mode of pollination :
Ziziphus jujuba is pollinated by a wide variety of insects.

Seed dispersal :
The seeds of Ziziphus jujuba are mainly dispersed by frugivorous birds and mammals.


Flowering season : From June to November.
Fruiting season : From December to April.
Seeding season : From December to April.
Leaves falling : During the hot season.


- Bark contains much tannin and a crystalline principle, ziziphic acid.
- Tannin in the bark is called ziziphotannic acid.
- Fruit contains mucilage, fruit acids and sugar.
- Bark contains 4.1 % tannin; the root 2.6 to 9.3% tannin.
- Studies have yielded various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transp­coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2)-a­arabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3)-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin.
- Study evaluating leaves and bark of ZJ for catechins and proanthocyanidin isolated 16 compounds, including 8 monmeric catechins—
(−)-epiafzelechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate, (−)-epigal-locatechin gallate, (+)-catechin, (+)-catechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin; 4 dimeric proanthocyanidins — (−)-epiafzelechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B-2, (−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epigallocatechin, and (−)-epiafzelechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epigallocatechin; and 4 oligomeric proanthocyanidins consisting of epiafzelechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and epicatechin. 
- Nutrient analysis of fresh, raw fruit (per 100 g) yielded: (Proximates) water 77.86 g, energy 79 kcal, protein 1.20 g, total lipid (fat) 0.20 g, carbohydrate 20-23 g; (Minerals) calcium 21 mg, iron 0.48 mg, magnesium 10 mg, phosphorus 23 mg, potassium 250 mg, sodium 3 mg, zinc 0.05 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 69.0 mg, thiamin 0.02 mg, riboflavin 0.04 mg, niacin 0.900 mg, vitamin B6 0.081 mg, vitamin A 40 IU; (Lipids) No cholesterol and trans fatty acids


Important formulations 
  1. The decoction of bark of Jujube is used as co drink (Anupana) along with Narayana churna to treat bloating and abdominal distension.
  2. Ajamamsa Rasayan
  3. Panchamla Thailam

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Fruit, Leaves, Root, ,


  1. Dried fruit pulp, devoid of seed—3-6 g;
  2. 5–7 fruits; 
  3. stem bark—3–5 g powder,
  4.  10–20 g for decoction.


Substitute the dried jujube wherever recipes call for raisins or dates.
The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute


Zizyphus nummularia


Sour Jujube fruit is incompatible with milk

Eventhough Ziziphus mauritiana is accepted name, many authors are mentioned name as z. jujuba in their publications.

Commercial value:

The wood of Ziziphus jujuba is hard, durable, close-grained and takes a good polish. It is used for agricultural implements, well construction, tool handles, turnery...
Ziziphus jujuba is used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicines.


Spiny, deciduous shrub or a small tree, up to 10 m high;spines in groups of two, one straight, up to 2.5 cm long and one curved. Leaves alternate, petiolate, oval-lanceolate, 2–7 cm long, 2.5–3.0 cm wide;apex slightly obtuse;base oblique;margin closely serrulate, with three veins. Inflorescence an axillary cyme. Flowers perfect, seven to eight in each cluster;calyx with cupuliform tube and five segments;petals five, yellow;disk`lining the calyx tube;stamens five;ovary depressed into the disk.

Fruits are fleshy drupes, ovoid or oblong, 1.5–5.0 cm long, dark reddish brown when ripe. Irregular furrowed stones are found in tuberculate seed which contains 6 mm long brown kernels of elliptic shape.


The longitudinal sections (L.S) of the fruit show thin green epicarp, wide soft mesocarp, and dark brown thick endocarp. In longitudinal view, the seed shows a thick conical part, thick wide shell which is hard. In the cotyledon is more or less cordate,white and soft with shallow notch at the upper end. In T.S, the fruit appears circular with soft pericarp, thick dark brown seed coat of sclereids, and vertically elongated white cotyledon. The epicarp layer is broken at certain places. In the mesocarp, some of the cells have dense tannin content and others have mucilage substance. The mucilaginous canals are wide, unbranched, and wavy. Some of the mesocarp cells contain dense accumulation of protein bodies. The sclerotesta contains palisade or macrosclereids. The seed consists of two elliptical, flat cotyledons which show dense accumulation of starch grains and small less prominent vascular strand. The powder microscopy of the fruit contains abundant dark mucilaginous substance. Fragments of epidermal cells of the pericarp and mesocarp cells are frequently seen. The seed coat epidermal cells are polyhedral with lignified cell walls. The circular brachy sclereids were often seen in the mesophyll tissue of the fruit. The ground parenchyma with various shapes and size is also noticed.

Geographical distribution:

Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, northern India, and southern and central China, and possibly also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there


Ziziphus jujuba is a thorny, small-sized and deciduous tree growing up to 10-12 m high.

Plant conservation:

Red List Category and Criteria (IUCN) : Least Concern (LC); Published in 2007.

General Use:

The bark is astringent, constipating and tonic, and is useful in dysentery, diarrhoea, gingivitis and boils.
The stem bark decoction is used to check diarrhea.

The leaves are febrifuge.
The leaves paste are applied on the affected portion to cure scorpion sting.

The fruit is astringent, anodyne, cooling, expectorant and stomachic.

Therapeutic Uses:

This herb is traditionally used for weakness, fatigue, debility, restlessness, hysteria and to assist in the actions of other herbs, as we believe it does in this formula. This herb contains vitamins A, B-2, C, calcium, phosphorus, iron and complex sugars. This herb is considered to nourish both the blood and the energy, which are mutually interdependent.

Systemic Use:

Fruits—wild var.: astringent, anodyne, cooling, stomachic, styptic. Ripe and dry cultivated var.: mild laxative, expectorant. Seeds—antidiarrhoeal. Kernels—antispasmodic, sedative, antiemetic. Leaves—astringent and diaphoretic. Stem bark—astringent, used in diarrhoea. Root bark—juice purgative, externally applied to rheumatic inflammations and gout. Leaves and twigs—paste applied to
abscesses, boils and carbuncles and in strangury.


Its fruits are consumed as it is. It is also made into pickles, beverages.
Its leaves or bark are made into decoction (Kashaya) – by adding water, boiling, filtered and used when hot.
The bark / leaf paste is made by drying them, grinding to fine powder, adding water and grinding again to make paste


Considered tonic, aphrodisiac, anxiolytic, hypnotic-sedative, anticancer, antifungal, anti-ulcer.
- Studies on fruit have suggested anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and gastroprotective properties.

Clinical trials:

1. A standardized extract of the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (Jujube) induces neuronal differentiation of cultured PC12 cells: a signaling mediated by protein kinase A. / Chen J, Maiwulanjiang M, Lam KY, Zhang WL, Zhan JY, Lam CT, Xu SL, Zhu KY, Yao P, Lau DT, Dong TT, Tsim KW. / J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 26;62(8):1890-7. doi: 10.1021/jf405093f. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

2. The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits /
Gao QH, Wu CS, Wang M. / J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 10;61(14):3351-63. doi: 10.1021/jf4007032. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

3. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus jujuba Seeds Extract / Sherif H Abd-Alrahman, Mounir M Salem-Bekhit, Manal E A Elhalwagy / Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, Nov 2013, Vol 7 (Spl. Edn.), p 379-385


1. Investigation into the hypoglycemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus Jujuba Leaves on blood glucose and lipids in Alloxan-Induced diabetes in rats / Shirdel Z, Madani H, Mirbadalzadeh R / Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders; 2009 pp 13-19

2. Protective Effect Of Zizyphus Jujuba Fruit Extract Against Paracetamol And Thioacetamide Induced Hepatic Damage In Rats / S R Prasanna Kumar, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1



Pregnancy and breast-feeding:There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking zizyphus if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Toxicity studies:

There is not enough information available to know if zizyphus is safe to take for medical conditions.

Use in other system of medicine:

Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit is edible; used in a variety of recipes.
- In Persian cuisine, dried fruit is known as "annab." (30)
- In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark and leaves is an effective astringent in dysentery and diarrhea. Also, used in all kinds of bowel problems.
- Root, taken in excess, is a drastic purgative.
- In Angola, used to promote menstruation.
- Decoction used for fevers.
- Powdered root used for ulcers and wounds.
- Juice of root bark used as purgative; externally, for gout and rheumatism.
- Bark is emetic in larger doses. Sometimes, used for colic.
- Bark, powdered or in decoction, is astringent and used for diarrhea.
- Powdered bark used as dressing for old wounds and ulcers.
- In Cambodia, bark is used for dysentery and gingivitis.
- Some Benue tribes use the leaves as ingredient in a prescription for gonorrhea.
- Pounded leaves are applied as dressing to wounds. Leaves, in plaster form, used in strangury. Paste made from tender leaves and twigs applied to boils, abscesses and carbuncles to promote suppuration.
- Dried and ripe fruit used is mildly laxative; also, used as expectorant.
- In China, fruit used for coughs. Also, used for insomnia and anxiety.
- Cosmetics: Extracts used in a variety of skin care products, anti-wrinkles, moisturizers, and sunburn lotions.
- Tanning: Used for tanning in India.
- Fishing: In Abyssinia, fruit used to stupefy fish.

Photos of badara -

KEY WORDS: Botanical names- Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk (Z. Jujuba Lamk) , badara

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