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indivara indivara - Monochoria vaginalis Presl.

indivara indivara :

indivara indivara : Monochoria vaginalis Presl.

Monochoria vaginalis is a species of flowering plant in the water hyacinth familyknown by several common names, including heartshape false pickerelweed and oval-leafed pondweed.

It is native to much of Asia and across many of the Pacific Islands, and it is known in other areas as an introduced species. It is often an invasive noxious weed, and is listed on the United States Federal Noxious Weed List

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Streptophyta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Pontederiaceae
Genus: Monochoria
Species: Monochoria vaginalis


Sanskrit: इन्दिवर Indivarah, Kuvalayam, Endeevara, Nilolpal.
English: heartshape false pickerelweed, marshy betelvine, oval-leafed pondweed
Hindi: Nanka, Indivar. ननका nanka, पानपत्ता paanpatta
Telugu: Nirkancha. నీరు కాచ neerukaacha, నీరుకాంచ nirokancha
Bengali: Nukha ছোটনখা chotanakha, পানি কচু panee kachu •
Marathi: Nelat-phal नीलोत्पल
Konkani: नीलोत्पल nilotpala
Tamil: Karimkuvalam.கருங்குவளை karu-n-kuvalai
Malayalam: Karinkuvvalam, Karimkoovalam, Nilolpalam.കാക്കപ്പോള kakkappola, കരിങ്കൂവളം karinkuvalam, കുളച്ചേമ്പ് kulachempu, കുവലയം kuvalaya
Kannada: ನೀಲೋತ್ಪಲ neelotpala
Spanish: monochoria
Assamese: Nara metaka, ভাতমেটেকা bhat meteka, জোনাকী ফুল jonaki phul
Japanese: Ko-Nagi, Sasa-Nagi
Chinese: Ye she cao.
French: pontédérie
Burma: beda, le-padauk, kadauk-sat
Sinhalese: Diyahabarala.
Tulu: ನೀರ್ ಚೇವು neerchevu


Synonyms in Ayurveda: इन्दिवर Indivarah, Kuvalayam, Endeevara, Nilolpal.

Rasa: Madhura
Guna: Guru Snigdha
Veerya: Sheetha
Vipaka: Maduram
Karma: Pittahara

Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burns, and scalds, burning sensations, general debility, fever, hemorrhage, cough and scurvy.


A plant of the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 35°c, but can tolerate 13 - 38°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 700 - 4,000mm.
Grows best in a sunny position. Succeeds in wet soil and in water, becoming a floating plant in deeper water. Grows best in a fertile, heavy to medium-textured soil. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6.5, tolerating 4 - 7
The plant is a common weed of rice paddies, where it often grows as an annual


Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe


The plant is harvested from the wild as a vegetable crop and for local medicinal use


 Stigmasterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. 



Parts used for medicinal purpose

Leaves, Root, ,


Curna (Powder) : 3 to 6 g. 

Commercial value:



Rhizome-clothed with leaf sheath, spongy roots, light in weight, size variable, dark greenish pink in colour; no odour; taste, salty


Rhizome – Epidermis single layered; a cortical region distinct from the stelar region present; cortical region prominently aerenchymatous with large air chambers due to parenchymatous trabeculae; several small patches of tissues present among the trabeculae, some of which are of undifferentiated parenchyma while some show a strand or two of xylem and phloem; several of the air chambers show partition by a thin diaphragm of one or two layers of thin walled cells with minute intercellular spaces and cross- wall perforations; occasionally, a cortical bundle with well developed vascular tissues within a distinct endodermis and air chambers seen, beneath which a thick walled parenchymatous sheath of 6 or 7 layers of cells enclosing the xylem, phloem and parenchyma is present; cortical region also shows raphides, starch grains and amber coloured amorphous bodies staining bright red with Sudan III in fair amounts, most of them displaced from their original positions; stelar region surrounded by endodermis, within which numerous patches of reduced vascular bundles containing a few xylem and phloem strands are seen; air spaces also sporadically present; starch grains similar to cortex present. Powder –Blackish pink, shows raphides, starch grains, parenchyma, vessel elements scalariform or pitted; non septate fibres 500 to 1000 µ; circular starch grains 8 to 12 µ in diameter. 

Geographical distribution:

E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, through southeast Asia to Australia.


Fresh water swamps, ditches, shallow pools, canal banks, and particularly in flooded rice fields where it is often the commonest weed. Usually found in eutrophic water, but also in brackish and oligotrophic water at elevations up to 1,500 metres

Plant conservation:

Least Concern [LC] ().

General Use:

toothache, asthma, coughs, stomachic

Therapeutic Uses:

Daha (Burning sensation), Daurbalya (Weakness), Dhatukshaya
(Tissue wasting), Raktapitta (Bleeding disorder), Yakritvikara (Disorder of liver)

Systemic Use:

The juice of the roots is used to treat stomach and liver problems. The juice is also used as a treatment for asthma and to relieve toothache.

The leaves are used to treat fevers. The juice of the leaves is used for curing coughs
The leaves are pounded, then mixed with turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Portulaca pilosa, and applied to boils after they have burst


leaf juice, bark


Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burns, and scalds, burning sensations, general debility, fever, hemorrhage, cough and scurvy.

Clinical trials:

  1. Pharmacognostical investigation roots of Monochoria vaginalis presl. M.K. Gupta* R.V.Savadi* K.P.Manjunath* K.S. Akki * A.V.Bhandarkar* H.N.Sholapur


  1. Nutritional Assessment of Monochoria vaginalis, a Wild Edible Vegetable Supplement to the Human Diet by Rahul Chandran,Parimelazhagan Thangaraj 

  2. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE LEAVES OF Monochoria vaginalis by M. Mallique QaderV Illeperuma, H.M.S.K.H. Bandara1, A. Ratnatilleke3,  D. Yakandawala2,*, N.S. Kumar1, L. Jayasinghe1,*, H. Araya3, Y. Fujimoto 

Use in other system of medicine:

Edibility / Nutritional
- Tubers, leaves and aerial parts are eaten, raw or cooked.
- In Bengal, tender stalk and leaves are eaten as vegetable.
- In Java, entire plant, except for the roots, eaten as vegetable.
- Nutritional evaluation suggests the plant can be an alternative nutrient rich leafy vegetable.
- Leaves are poulticed after boils have burst.
- Juice of roots for stomach and liver problems, asthma and toothache.
- In Java leaf juice use for coughs; roots for stomach and liver complaints, asthma and toothache. Leaves with ginger and honey taken for cough and cold.
- Bark eaten with sugar for asthma. 
- In India, used for burns and scalds; general debility, asthma, fever, hemorrhage, cough, scurvy, dipsia, strangury, gastropathy, hepatopathy, odontalgia, scurvy and hemorrhages.
- Paste of tuber used externally as antidote to snakebite poisoning in Tamil Nadu. 
- In Tripuri, India, decoction of fresh roots used for nausea. Whole plant is cooked by tribal people and used in digestive disorders. Young shoots used for gastritis and asthma.
- Paniya tribe of India use the leaves for diabetes.
- In the Siddha system, roots is used for cough, disease of pittam, venereal afflictions, thirst, fainting, and fever. 
- Juice of leaves applied to boils. 
- In Ayurvedic and Unani medicine, root is chewed for toothaches and sugared bark for asthma.


The  plant  family  Pontederiaceae  consists of widespread herbs, perennial or annual, aquatic,  Floating,  or  rooted  in  substrate, inhabiting tropical and subtropical regions. Monochoria is a small genus of this plant family. It is a family  of  6 genera  and  40 species  which  is  widespread  in  tropical and sub tropical regions. These are fresh-water and  marsh herbs,  erect or  floating. An  aquatic  herb  short,  sub-erect  spongy root stocks found in rice fields, margins of tanks  and  pools,  swamps  and  marshes almost throughout  India, ascending  up to 1500 m. In the hills. Roots of Monochoria vaginalis are used in traditional medicine. The  entire  plant,  excepting  the  roots  is eaten as vegetable in java. Juice of leaves is  taken  for  coughs  and  that  of  root  for stomach and liver complaints, asthma and toothache.  The  root  is  chewed  for toothache  and  bark  eaten  with  sugar  for asthma.

KEY WORDS: indivara, Monochoria vaginalis Presl.

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