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canda - Angelica archengelica Linn.

canda :

Angelica archangelica Inflorescence Photograph by: H. Zell Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the family Apiaceae, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots. Like several other species in Apiaceae, its appearance is similar to several poisonous species (Conium, Heracleum, and others), and should not be consumed unless it has been identified with absolute certainty. Synonyms include Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. and Angelica officinalis Moench.


From the 10th century on, angelica was cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal plant, and achieved popularity in Scandinavia in the 12th century and is used especially in Sami culture. Angelica is a shamanic medicine among the Saami or Laplanders.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Streptophyta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Umbelliferae
Genus: Angelica
Species: Angelica archangelica


Sanskrit: Laghu Coraka
English: Holy Ghost, Wild Celery, and Norwegian angelica.
Hindi: Choraka bheda, Dudhachoraa
Urdu: انجلیق
Telugu: అంజెలికా
Tamil: ஆஞ்சலிகா
Malayalam: Njara-ഞറ
Kannada: ಏಂಜೆಲಿಕಾ
Arabic: Hashisha al malik
Spanish: Angelica
Japanese: シシウド, アンゼリカ
Chinese: 当归
French: Angélique, achangélique, herbe du Saint−Espr
German: arznei-engelwurz
Persian: gol-par
Greek: αγγελική


In Western herbal medicine, the two most common varieties of Angelica that are used are European Angelica (Angelica archangelica, Angelica officinalis) and American Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea, Angelica spp.).


Archangelica comes from the Greek word "arkhangelos" (=arch-angel), due to the belief that it was the archangel Michael who told of its use as a medicine


Synonyms in Ayurveda: canda, phalachoura, taskara, kitava, krodhana, pishuna, gouri, shankhinika, shathi, douhkuleya-dushkula

Archangelica comes from the Greek word arkhangelos (=arch-angel), due to the myth that it was the angel Gabriel who told of its use as a medicine. In Finnish it is called vainonputki, in Kalaallisut kuanneq, in Sami fadnu, boska, and rassi, in English garden angelica, in German arznei-engelwurz, in Dutch grote-engelwortel, in Persian gol-par, in Swedish kvanne, in Norwegian kvann, in Danish kvan, in Icelandic hvonn, and in Faroese it has the name hvonn
Rasa: Katu
Guna: Laghu Teeskhsna
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Vatahara

Kaphahara, Mutrala, Vatahara, Visaghna, Svasahara, Varnaprasadaka, Svedaghna, Kandughna, Daurgandhahara


Cultivate in ordinary deep, moist loam, in a shady position, as the plant thrives best in a damp soil, and loves to grow near running water. Although the natural habitat is in damp soil and in open quarters, yet it can withstand adverse environment wonderfully well, and even endure severe winter frost, without any injury. Seedlings will even successfully develop and flower under trees, whose shelter creates an area of summer dryness in the surface soil, but of course, although such conditions may be allowable when Angelica is grown merely as an ornamental plant, it must be given the best treatment as regards suitable soil and situation, when grown for its use commercially. Insects and garden pests do not attack the plant with much avidity: its worst enemy is a small two-winged fly, of which the maggots are leaf miners, resembling those of the celery plant and the spinach leaf.


Propagation should not be attempted otherwise than by the sowing of ripe, fresh seeds, although division of old roots is sometimes recommended, and also propagation by offshoots, which are thrown out by a two-year old plant, when cut down in June for the sake of the stems, and which transplanted at two feet or more apart, will provide a quick method of propagation, considered inferior, however, to that of raising by seed. As the germinating capacity of the seeds rapidly deteriorates, they should be sown as soon as ripe in August or early September. If kept till March, especially if stored in paper packets, their vitality is likely to be seriously impaired. In the autumn, the seeds may be sown where the plants are to remain, or preferably in a nursery bed, which as a rule will not need protection during the winter. A very slight covering of earth is best. Young seedlings, but not old plants, are amenable to transplantation. The seedlings must be transplanted when still small, for their first summers growth, at a distance of about 18 inches apart. In the autumn they can be removed to permanent quarters, the plants being then set three feet apart.


Harvesting angelica’s tender stems must wait until the second year and are then candied. Cut the stalks in mid to late spring while they are young and tender. Another good reason for pruning angelica stems is so the plant will continue to produce. Angelica that is left to flower and go to seed will die.


The chief constituents of Angelica are about one percent volatile oil, valeric acid, angelic acid, sugar, a bitter principle, and a peculiar resin called Angelicin, which is stimulating to the lungs and to the skin. Generally it contains limonene, α-phellandrene, pinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myrcene, fenchone, linalool, α-terpineol, cadinene, borneol, β-caryophyllene, bisabolol, angelica lactone, and other mono and sesquiterpenes. Other constituents include selimone, archangelin, and oxypeucedanin. Glycoside (C 20 H 24 O 10 ), (C 17 H 16 O 9 ), (C 21 H 26 O 10 ) and (C 16 H 18 O 9 ) have been identified as (3R)-hydroxymarmesin 4-O-b -D-glucopyranoside, and have been isolated from Angelica archangelica Linn



It is one of the ingredients in the Ayurveda medicines like:-
Sahacharadi Kuzhambu

Himasagara Tailam

Mahanarayan thaialam

Nalpamaradi Thaialam

Nisosiradi Thailam

Prabhanjana Vimardanam Thailam

Sahacharadi Thailam

Sarvamayanthaka Ghritam

Triphaladi Keram

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Root, ,


1-3 g.


According to the legend, the plant was revealed to a monk by an angel as an antidote to the bubonic plague. 


Wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris) has often been regarded as the poor mans substitute for garden angelica (Angelica archangelica).
It was also used as a substitute for tobacco


Angelica  silvestris radix


Granthiparna is an Ayurvedic herb used in the treatment of asthma, poisoning, itching, diarrhoea, foul smell etc

Botanical Name – Polygonum aviculare
Angelica archangelica is also identified with the name Granthiparna.

Commercial value:

Angelica has a long folk-history of use as a medicinal herb, in particular for the treatment of digestive disorders and problems with blood circulation
An essential oil from the root and seeds is used in perfumery, medicinally and as a food flavouring


Tap root thick, twisted, fleshy, highly aromatic with numerous rootlets, grayish in color; odor, musk-like; taste, sweet.


Microscopic T.S. shows the periderm composed of five to nine layers of cork, followed by a layer of phellogen, and a few layers of phelloderm of rectangular cork cells; a cortex composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells, irregular in shape with intercellular spaces, containing abundant starch grains; numerous oleo-resin cells filled with oil globules are present, which, in mature roots may degenerate and form irregular cavities. The vascular region and cortex are traversed by biseriate medullary rays, containing circular starch grains, usually measuring up to 24 ΅, but some up to 65 ΅ in length and 45 ΅ in breadth. The phloem is a wide zone composed of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, and medullary rays. Schizogenous oleo-resin cells lined by epithelium containing yellowish brown substances are present in this zone. The cambium is very distinct, consisting of four to eight layers. The xylem consists of vessels and tracheids. Powder - Creamish yellow; shows under a microscope, drum-shaped vessels with reticulate thickenings, tracheids elongated with pointed ends having reticulate thickenings; fibers narrow and elongated with pointed ends; circular starch grains present.
Powder: Creamish yellow; shows under a microscope, drum-shaped vessels with reticulate thickenings, tracheids elongated with pointed ends, having reticulate thickenings; elongated narrow fibers with pointed ends; and circular starch grains present.

Geographical distribution:

Angelica archangelica grows wild in Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland, mostly in the northern parts of the countries. It is cultivated in France, 


According to some botanists, this species of Angelica is believed to be a native of Syria from where it has spread to many cool European climates, where it has become naturalized. It is occasionally found native in the cold and moist places in Scotland, but is more abundant in countries further north, such as, Lapland and Iceland. It is supposed to have come to this country from northern latitudes in about 1568; there are about thirty varieties of Angelica, but this one is the only one officially employed in medicine. Parkinson, in his Paradise in Sole, 1629, puts Angelica in the forefront of all medicinal plants, and it holds almost as high a place among village herbalists to-day, although it is not the native species of Angelica that is of such value medicinally and commercially, but an allied form, found wild in most places in the northern parts of Europe. This large variety, Angelica Archangelica (Linn.), also known as Archangelica officinalis, is grown abundantly near London in moist fields, for the use of its candied stems. It is largely cultivated for medicinal purposes in Thuringia, and the roots are also imported from Spain.

Plant conservation:

Least Concern (IUCN)

General Use:

The herb, including the fruits and roots, is used for flavoring, and is reported to possess carminative properties. The root is aromatic and is reported to possess diaphoretic and diuretic properties, and is used in flatulent colic. It is sometimes applied externally as a counter-irritant. Internally it is used in digestive complaints, flatulence or as a tonic for cold and the respiratory system

Therapeutic Uses:

Kaphahara, Mutrala, Vatahara, Visaghna, Svasahara, Varnaprasadaka, Svedaghna, Kandughna, Daurgandhahara

Systemic Use:

It is widely used in the treatment of a variety of diseases like plague, pleurisy, cough, flu, bronchial catarrh, rheumatism, uterine stimulant, etc. In fact, it is the most widely used European plant. It is especially useful in menstrual disorders. It regulates periods, and helps in expulsion of placenta after delivery.


* AntiCancer * Antitussive * Aromatic * Bitter * Carminative * Cordial * Diaphoretic/sudorific * Emmenagogue * Expectorant * Nervine * Stimulant * Stomachic * Tonic

Clinical trials:

1. Vashistha RK, Chaturvedi AK, Nautiyal BP, Nautiyal MC. Vegetative propagation of Angelica glauca Edgew. and Angelica archangelica Linn.: Two high value medicinal and aromatic herbs of the Himalaya. Nat Sci 2009;7:76-82.  Back to cited text no. 4
2. Vashistha RK, Nautiyal BP, Nautiyal MC. Cultivation of A. archangelica Linn.: Evaluation for economical viability at two different climatic conditions. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2008;2:563-72.  Back to cited text no. 5
3. Anonymous: CAMP Report: Conservation Assessment and Management Prioritization for the Medicinal Plants of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Bangalore: FRLHT; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 6


1. Wedge DE, Klun JA, Tabanca N, Demirci B, Ozek T, Baser KH, et al. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and GC/MS fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica root components for antifungal and mosquito deterrent activity. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:464-70.  Back to cited text no. 36
2. Sigurdsson S, Gudbjarnason S. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum. Z Naturforsch C 2007;62:689-93.  Back to cited text no. 37
3. Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Kenawy SA, Seif-el-Nasr M, Mahran LG, Kafafi YA, et al. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:545-53.  Back to cited text no. 38


Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Angelica may not be safe when taken by mouth during pregnancy. Its suggested that angelica can cause uterine contractions, and this could threaten the pregnancy.
There isnt enough information about the safety of taking angelica if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side, and dont use it.

Toxicity studies:

Angelica seems to be safe when used in food amounts, although Canada does not allow the Archangelica species as food ingredients. There isnt enough information to know if angelica is safe when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts.

Angelica root seems to be safe for most adults when used as a cream, short-term.

If you take angelica, wear sunblock outside, especially if you are light-skinned. Angelica might make your skin more sensitive to sunlight.

Use in other system of medicine:

Its virtues are praised by old writers, and the name itself, as well as the folk-lore of all North European countries, testifies to the great antiquity of a belief in its merits as a protection against contagion, for purifying the blood, and for curing every conceivable malady. (Grieve, Maud)
Angelica was associated with many Pagan festivals, and after the introduction of Christianity, the plant became linked with some angelic lore as well. According to legend Angelica was revealed in a dream by an angel to cure the plague. Another explanation for the name is that it blooms on the day of Michael the Archangel (May 8, oldstyle) and is on that account held to be a preservative against evil spirits and witchcrafts of spells of all kinds, being also called


Wild Angelica is a tall biennial, some time perennial herbs in the family of Apiaceae, mostly found in India western Ghat area, grow to 1 to 3 m tall, the leaves are large, bipinnate, the flowers are large, compound umbels of white or greenish-white in colour. Stem is slender and hollow like Daliya Plant
relive the body pain, lowers blood pressure, gastric problems like indigestion, flatulence and dyspepsia, relieve joints pain, muscle aches, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Photos of canda -

KEY WORDS: canda Scientific name: Angelica archengelica Linn.

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