kumbhi :Careya arborea is a species of tree in the Lecythidaceae family, native to the Indian Subcontinent, Afghanistan, and Indochina. It is known as Kumbhi in Hindi, and Slow Match Tree in English
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:--In colonial times in India, the fibrous bark of this tree was found to be an ideal substitute for Beech bark as matches for matchlocks
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Careya arborea
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: कूम्भी Kumbhi, कुम्भः Kumbha, कटभि Katabhi
English: Kumbi, Slow match tree, Wild guava, Patana oak
Hindi: पीलू Pilu, कूम्भी Kumbhi
Telugu: కుమ్భూ Kumbhi
Bengali: কাংবের Kamber
Marathi: कुंभी Kumbhi
Gujarathi: ગંગેઠિ Gangethi, કુંભી Kumbhi, કુંભ Kumbh
Tamil: கம்பி Kampi, கும்பி Kumpi, பேழைமரம் Pelaimaram, ஆவிமா Avima
Malayalam: Aalam, Pezhu, Peru, പേഴ് Peezh, Alasoo
Kannada: ಕವಳ Kaval
Munda: -Asanda-daru, Kumbhi
Assamese: Pani-bhela, Kumari, Kumbhi, Kumrega, Kum Kumari, Panibhela
- Careya sphaerica Roxb.
- Careya herbacea Roxb.
- Careya arborea Roxb.
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: kumbhi
-kumudika - flowers are beautiful like night lily
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Careya arborea Roxb. is commonly known as Kumbhi in Hindi and Wild Guava in English. It is widely distributed in Sri Lanka, India, Peninsula and Malay up to an altitude of 1500 meters This plant is very important in the field of medicines and is being used for treatment of various ailments. It is also used for other purposes e.g. methanolic extract of the leaf is a good indicator in acid-base titrations , crushed bark of the root is mixed with water to stupefy fishes , stem bark is used for clothing and to produce yellow colored dye and leaves are used as green manure
Cultivation:Prefers a well-drained, sandy or even rocky soil. Requires a sunny position
In India the annual diameter increment can be up to 0.5 cm, but growth of coppice is faster, 0.6 - 0.9 cm in diameter for 8-year-old coppice shoots.
The tree is highly fire resistant and coppices well.
Propogation:Seed - there is over 90% germination in 11 - 46 days
Harvesting:The plant is a popolar herbal remedy in India, where it is often harvested from the wild for local use and trade.
Phytochemistry:Flowers - Flowers of C. arborea have triterpenoids, steroids and tannins
Parts used for medicinal purposeBark, Flower, Fruit, Leaves, Seed, ,
Dosage:decoction - 30-40ml
Substitute:In colonial times in India, the fibrous bark of this tree was found to be an ideal substitute for Beech bark as matches for matchlocks.
Commercial value:-Various formulations containing C. arborea as one of the active components are available in market e.g. Hamdard Ghutti® (Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf) Pakistan), a pediatric preparation used to evacuate bowl and treat constipation of newborn and infants
Morphology:C. arborea is a tree having a spreading crown and height of about 20 meters. Arrangement of leaves is alternate. Flowers are large, sessile, ill smelling and yellowish white colored. Inflorescence of flowers is racemose. Flowering season is March to April. Fruit is large, round shaped, fleshy and green in color, seeds being embedded in this fleshy pulp. Bark is of dark grey color and usually exfoliates in thin strips
Geographical distribution:Shady areas and forests of the subHimalayas (from Jammu to West Bengal), Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:-Scattered but locally common in primary or secondary, evergreen or deciduous, slightly seasonal forest, sometimes in more open country and along forest edges. It is absent from perhumid rain forest.
Plant conservation:-not evaluated
General Use:Snakebite antidote (fruit and bark), in treating body pain, fever, cold, cough, and leucoderma. The plant parts are used to treat snakebite, ulcers, healing wound, cough, cold, abscesses and dysentery.
Therapeutic Uses:Whole plant - Astringent, demulcent, antipyretic, antipruritic, in cough, cold and eruptive fevers Smallpox (Pal et al., 1999) Snake bite (Bhandary, 2000-2001; Chandra et al., 1989; Jain, 1970)
Systemic Use:Abdominal pain: Grind the bark of Careya arborea with the bark of Madei tree into paste. Soak the paste in water. After two to three days filter with cloth and take the filtrate orally.
Body pain: Grind 20 g root of Careya arborea into paste. Boil the paste with cows milk. Take 50 ml of the mixture as a dose twice a day for one day only.
Cold / Fever: Boil the bark of Careya arborea for 15 minutes. Take 25 ml of this decoction with honey as a single dose twice a day for three to four days.
Cuts/ Wounds:Grind the sun-dried bark of Careya arborea into powder. Sprinkle the powder over the wounds.
Liquid purging: Grind the dried bark of Careya arborea with water to make paste. Prepare pills of 5 g each from the paste. Take one pill as a dose three times a day with water until cured.
Myalgia: Grind the bark of Careya arborea and the root of Bauhinia variegata into paste. Take 10 g of this paste as a dose twice a day for 7 days.
Pain due to injury: Boil a long bark of Careya arborea in water for 15 minutes. Use the long boiled bark as bandage on the injured part.
Poultry lice: Keep the flowers of Careya arborea inside the poultry house to get rid of lice in poultry.
Rabies: Grind the root of a small tree of Careya arborea. Make a pudding by mixing the paste with broken rice. Administer the pudding to the patient and advise patient to sit under the sun for a while. This will cause vomiting and cure the patient.
Administration:-The juice of the bark, and the calices of the flowers, are astringent and mucilaginous]. They are often used internally in India for treating coughs and colds, and are applied externally as an embrocation
Pharmacological:The therapeutical importance of Careyaarborea is mentioned in Materia Medica, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani system of medicines. The root paste is used in body ache. Moreover, it is taken in the morning in empty stomach against joint pain for five days. Root-bark decoction (with long pepper) is used in fever, Stem-bark powder (paste with honey) is given to children in cold and cough; Stem-bark (paste with margosa) heals leucoderma. The bark of the tree and the sepals of the flowers are used as astringent and mucilaginous being administered internally in coughs and colds and applied externally as an embrocation. The stem bark of C. arborea is traditionally used in the treatment of tumours, bronchitis, skin disease, epileptic fits, astringent antidote to snake venom, abscesses, boil and ulcer . Infusion of the flower is used after childbirth to heal rupture caused by childbirth.
Clinical trials:Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb Prakash Gupta, Nisha Sharma, Ch V Rao
Research:A better understanding of traditional uses of Careya arborea Roxb.: Phytochemical and pharmacological review Nupur Ambardar , Vidhu Aeri
Use in other system of medicine:-In colonial times in India, the fibrous bark of this tree was found to be an ideal substitute for Beech bark as matches for matchlocks
CONCLUSION:In 1819 a genus of flowering plants in the family Lecythidaceae was described as Careya large fruits with woody skins. The family comprises of tropical trees consisting of about 20 genera and 450 species . The genus careya includes three different species which includes Careyasphaerica Roxb, Careyaherbacea Roxb and Careyaarborea Roxb. Careyaarborea is a deciduous tree about 20 m high and is known as ‘Padmaka’ in Ayurveda . The accepted botanical name is kumbi and “Wild guava” in English
KEY WORDS: kumbhi Careya arborea Roxb.
- » Classification and names of kumbhi
- » Synonyms and definitions of kumbhi
- » Drug Properties of kumbhi
- » Chemical Constituents of kumbhi
- » Standardization of kumbhi
- » Parts used and Dosage of kumbhi
- » Morphology and Histology of kumbhi
- » Distribution and Conservation of kumbhi
- » Cultivation of kumbhi
- » kumbhi in the market
- » Medicinal Uses of kumbhi
- » Researches and clinical trails of kumbhi
- » kumbhi in other sytems of medicine
- » Ayurvedic formulations with kumbhi
- » Images of kumbhi